System Services Provided
Each Schwungrad Energie facility will provide the following system services:
Fast Frequency Response
Fast Frequency Response is the additional increase in MW output from a generator following a frequency event that is available within 2 seconds of the start of the event and is sustained for at least 8 seconds.
Inertial Response (unsynchronized)
Inertial Response is the response in terms of active power output that a unit can provide immediately following disturbances in advance of the 2 sec Fast Frequency Response. It is a key determinant of the strength and stability of the power system. It has significant implications for rate of change of frequency (RoCoF) during power imbalances.
Primary Operating Reserve (POR)
Primary Operating Reserve (POR) is the additional MW output required at the Frequency nadir (minimum), compared to the pre-incident output where the nadir occurs between 5 and 15 seconds after an Event.
Secondary Operating Reserve (SOR)
Secondary Operating Reserve (SOR) is the additional MW output required compared to the pre-incident output, which is fully available and sustainable over the period from 15 to 90 seconds following an Event.
Tertiary Operating Reserve band 1 (TOR1)
Tertiary Operating Reserve band 1 (TOR1) is the additional MW output required compared to the pre-incident output which is fully available and sustainable over the period from 90 seconds to 5 minutes following an Event.
Steadystate reactive power
The Reactive Power Capability product is defined for conventional generators as the dispatchable reactive power range in Mvar (Qrange) that can be provided across the full range of active power output (i.e. from minimum generation to maximum generation).
Dynamic Reactive Response
The Dynamic Reactive Response product is defined as the ability of a unit when connected to deliver a Reactive Current response for voltage dips in excess of 30% that would achieve at least a Reactive Power in Mvar of 31% of the registered capacity at nominal voltage. The Reactive Current response shall be supplied with a Rise Time no greater than 40 ms and a Settling Time no greater than 300 ms.
Fast Post‐fault Active Power Recovery
Units that can recover their MW output quickly following a voltage disturbance (including transmission faults) can mitigate the impact of such disturbances on the system frequency. Fast Post‐fault Active Power Recovery is defined as having been provided when a plant exporting active power to the system, recovers its active power to at least 90% of its pre‐fault value within 250 ms of the voltage recovering to at least 90% of its pre‐fault value for all fault disturbances cleared within 900 ms. The generator must remain connected to the system for at least 15 minutes following the fault